Header graphic for print
Oil & Gas Law Report Reporting on recent legal developments and trends in the oil and gas industry.

Tag Archives: Oil and gas

Lawsuits Over “Fraudulent” Oil & Gas Leases Often Lack Merit

Posted in Contracts and Leases, Other Articles, Real Estate, Regulatory, Shale

The Ohio shale boom started slowly when a few small companies quietly began acquiring mineral leases for as little as $25 per acre.  This soon gave way to a full blown land rush in the fall of 2010.  But as lease prices skyrocketed through the Fall of 2011, disillusioned lessors who signed before the peak of the market were the ones rushing – to the courthouse to file lawsuits to cancel their leases.

In order to gain leverage and legitimize their lawsuit, lessors frequently allege that their lease is “unconscionable” or they were fraudulently induced to sign it.  “Exhibit A” to these lawsuits is often a technical error in the lease signing or a “fraudulent” statement made by a landman.  There are exceptions, but many of these kinds of lawsuits have no legal basis.…


Continue Reading →

Contradiction In The Ohio Dormant Minerals Act

Posted in Contracts and Leases, Mineral Interest, Ohio, Real Estate, Regulatory

Inconsistencies and ambiguities in the Ohio Dormant Minerals Act, Ohio Revised Code § 5301.56 (the “ODMA”), set the stage for legal battles that are just beginning.  Oil and gas operators may get caught in the crossfire.

Operators need to be aware of at least one glaring inconsistency in the current version[1] of the ODMA that sometimes makes it difficult to determine who owns a mineral interest that has been severed from the surface estate.  This inconsistency could render a lease meaningless, and make a lessee a trespasser, if the lease is not signed by the right party. …


Continue Reading →

Implied Covenants May Require Mineral Lessees to Develop Deep Rights

Posted in Contracts and Leases, Exploration & Production

Until recently, most lessors and their lawyers were not educated about technical nuances of oil and gas law, such as implied lease covenants.  But the recent shale boom and expected production from horizontal wells in the Marcellus, Utica, and Rose Run formations has revolutionized the relationship between lessors and lessees. 

The disinterested, ill-informed masses of Ohio lessors that existed before 2010 are now driven by the prospect of life-changing bonus payments and fear of environmental ruination.  Now lessors read their leases, attend oil and gas seminars, ask questions, and are eager to enforce their rights.  The stakes are high enough that lessors and their attorneys are lining up for any opportunity to forfeit leases.   

Lessees’ Legal Obligations are Evolving

The advent of horizontal drilling in Ohio may create a trap for unwary lessees.  Small lessees may be especially vulnerable if their leases do not contain provisions to waive the implied covenants that Ohio courts automatically read into oil and gas leases.  These implied covenants generally require a lessee to exercise “reasonable diligence” under an oil and gas lease, and specifically include, among other things, a “covenant of reasonable development.”  Moore v. Adams, 2008-Ohio-5953, ¶31-37 (Fifth Dist.); citing 5 Williams & Meyers, Oil and Gas Law (1991);  Beer v. Griffith (1980), 61 Ohio St.2d 119.

In recent times implied covenants have not been terribly burdensome to Ohio lessees because the opportunity for oil and gas production in Ohio was well known and could be exploited with conventional and affordable …


Continue Reading →

A Bonus Payment is Not Relevant to the Validity of an Oil & Gas Lease.

Posted in Contracts and Leases, Real Estate, Regulatory

In Eastern Ohio, before 2010, a customary signing bonus for an oil and gas lease was usually less than $25 per acre, as it had been for years.  By the fall of 2011, after the shale boom hit, lease bonus prices had risen in leaps and bounds to their peak (so far) of about $6,000 per acre before pulling back significantly in the spring of 2012.

Naturally, everyone who did not have the foresight or nerve to hold out for $6,000 per acre was left feeling more than a little miffed.  After all, a typical bonus check on a 100 acre parcel in 2009 or early 2010 would have been $2,500 but that bonus may have swelled to $600,000 in less than two years!

Courts Do Not Decide What is “Enough”

Fortunately for our economy and legal system, a party to a contract cannot later adjust the contract price when they finally realize the value of a transaction.  In fact, it is the imbalance of information, risk tolerance, and vision among different people that is the driving force of business in the United States.

But even reasonable lessors were overwhelmed by the incredible disparity between lease bonuses paid during the shale boom.  That disparity, combined with the belief that the oil and gas companies have bottomless bank accounts, spawned lawsuits by lessors to try to break leases with the hope of signing for more.

Of course, breaking contracts requires more than just a lot of hard feelings about not getting …


Continue Reading →