In our first post about Section 16 lands, we provided background on such public lands here in Ohio. We summarized that in 1785, a Federal land ordinance granted one square mile — usually Section 16 — out of every six square mile township to be held in trust by the state and to be dedicated to support public education pursuant to federal law. The Ohio Legislature then began leasing the land, and in 1827 it authorized sale of the land with proceeds going to the “Common School Fund.” Interest from the fund was to be paid to the schools within the townships. See, Dr. George W. Knepper, The Auditor of State, The Official Ohio Lands Book, 2002. (“Knepper”).
In regard to the funds collected from the sale of all school lands, the Ohio Constitution provided:
“The principal of all funds, arising from the sale, or other disposition of lands, or other property, granted or entrusted to this state for educational and religious purposes, shall forever be preserved inviolate, and undiminished; and, the income arising therefrom, shall be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants, or appropriations.” Ohio Constitution, Article VI, Section 1 1…
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Oil and gas law is, at its core, real estate law that has been shaped by a thousand years of common law and, more recently, statutory law. Ohio is no exception, and one area that has been impacted significantly by shifting legal policies and statutes is the ownership of minerals beneath “school lands” in Section 16 of Ohio’s Townships.
In the Federal Land Ordinance of 1785, Ohio was required to reserve one section of land (i.e., one square mile, usually section 16), in every Ohio township for the support of public education. Extending that federal mandate, in 1917, the Ohio Legislature passed a law that, among other provisions, provided, “It is declared to be the policy of the state to conserve … mineral resources of the [school lands held in trust] … and to this end the state reserves all gas, oil, coal, iron and other minerals that may be upon or under the said school lands… .” H.B. No. 192, passed March, 20, 1917 (107 Ohio Laws 357). Realizing the magnitude of this reservation and the fact that the Ohio Dormant Minerals Act cannot be used against government interests, my interest was tweaked and I decided to dig a little deeper.…
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Mineral and land owners in Ohio who are presented with a proposed lease from a landman or oil company often launch an intense study of royalty provisions, development covenants, delay rentals, Pugh clauses, well spacing and the like. They often refer to the Internet, land owner groups, owner-oriented attorneys and other resources. Like so many things, it turns out that our forefathers pretty much had it figured out. I recently reviewed a 1901 oil and gas lease from Putman County; my thoughts and observations are below.
The lease was granted by Noah Moser to The Sun Oil Co., an Ohio corporation, on Sept. 19, 1901. The recordation of this transaction is hand written into the Putman County records by the recorder. The consideration, what is today called the “signing bonus,” was $80 for a 160-acre parcel. (In today’s dollars, that’s an “economic power” of $56,300, or $352 per acre.)
In the two-page document, Mr. Moser granted all the oil and gas in and under the described premises together with the right to enter at all times for the purpose of drilling and operating for oil, gas or water. This included the right to erect, maintain and remove all buildings, structures, pipelines and machinery necessary, provided that Mr. Moser retained the right to farm the land not actually used. Just what one would expect. But here’s where Mr. Moser shows he knew what he was doing:…
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